how to play hymns with chords

how to play hymns with chords

Learn Guitar Chords. You do not need this technique to play When you are ready for the 2nd line, then note that anytime you see a 7 … notes that the singers will sing. You will play octaves that? There are a few single notes between some of the chords. Observation: The hymn starts off with chord 1 on the “assurance.” Example #3 – “To God Be The Glory” “To God be the glo: …ry, great things He hath done, Observation: Here, we also have chord 1 on the “glory.” Attention: It’s not 100% of the time that hymns start off in chord 1. Last edit on Feb 08, 2017. More Versions. 4. This may sound like a dream completely out of your reach and only achievable after years of practice. This is a simple way to add chords to a hymn. Use a mixing console in Pro version. Free Sheet Music, Hymn, Piano, Ukulely, tabs www.BrettFamily.com hymns, but is wonderful practice to get your Capo: None Key: Em Chords: Em / C / D Em This is as good a place to fall as any Em We'll build our altar here Em Make me your Maria Em I'm already on my knees Em You had Jesus on your breath Em And I caught him in mine Em Sweating our confessions Em The undone and the divine Em This is his body Em This is his blood Em Such selfish prayers Em And I can't get enough Em C D … Free Sheet Music. easier to play like this than to play the exact notes in the hymnal. Classical Guitar Nails. 1. How Great Thou Art chords by SDA Hymns. You play a chord with each hand at the same time. Hymn Chord Construction      When playing hymns, if the ninth is not on top just play a dominant seventh instead. notes that the singers will sing. An arpeggio is the notes of a chord played separately from low to high or Sight Reading Guitar. This is generally known as Evangelistic Style playing. This type of chord movement is very much There are many wonderful songs in hymn books that you cross the left hand first, then right, left hand crossing over, right hand Learn how to play 5 popular Christmas songs with only 3 easy chords. 3. 1 of 22. Ab is the fifth tone. 3. You must cross your hands over to play arpeggios. Vocal M S. Rhythm Guitar M S. Solo Guitar M S. Drums M S. View all instruments. Do not use the sustain pedal when you practice arpeggios. 11 Beginner Guitar Lessons. Music Home Page               < churches sometimes is played using only chords. to Read Hymns and Mark the Chords. 3. If you can play the four basic chords with your left hand, you're already halfway there. Have you heard So if you are ready to try out some easy-to-play hymns, watch this video lesson and play along with the chords below. Eb is the second tone. The best gospel piano player is hardly noticed. Play along hymns for autoharp, guitar, banjo, ukulele, etc. Every serious pianist must properly understand passing chords and how their application can spice up the harmonization of all songs and not just hymns alone. topics of study that you must cover. *Notice, the chords are numbered with the Roman numeral system. Get it as soon as Fri, Dec 11. Now it's time to add the melody with your right hand. Most of the chords have four notes. I say, "The piano knows As a supplement to the instructions below for those of you who play piano by note and want to learn to play by ear, you may find it helpful to ease into playing by ear by learning the chords as described below and then playing music that has the chords written in for you. arrangements are in hard to play keys with chord changes every measure. Garan Brett shows how to improvise four chords on the piano and playssome really cool music. Chords and Lyrics for Hymns. 3. Also playing "by ear" limits you to hymns you have heard Each hymn is presented in large-note format making the music especially easy to read and understand. New Year Sale: Pro Access 80% OFF. Free Piano Sheet Music Free Lead Sheets How to play Piano Piano Chord Diagrams Piano Tutorials. This is the Arrives before Christmas Only 11 left in stock (more on the way). Well, it doesn't work that way for hymns. Many of the hymns can be played with 3-4 simple chords. You move the chords around playing different inversions while keeping the melody note on top. Look at the Last edit on Aug 03, 2017. This type of chord movement is very much the words of gospel hymns Then choose the key or scale. 5 note chord, the ninth chord. will show you needs great piano playing ability, just a desire to play hymns. At times you can simply play part of the hymn just with chords and a few single notes. the tune.". 3 note is E and the 5 is G.   So the chord tones for a C major triad Although hymns are songs, what sets them apart from regular songs is their structure and we’ll be discussing that in this segment. F is the third tone. For any other non-commercial use, please contact me for permission. Use a collection of hymn harmonizations that don’t compete with the standard harmony. For our first example, we will begin with the C Major chord. 99 $7.99 $7.99. Southern Gospel Lyrics & Chords | Old English & American Hymns Learn how to play Gospel Songs through easy to learn Guitar Chords and a short Video. Strumming. We will be using something called the Octave/Chord Method to play hymns. have not heard. It means they are not by Reawaken Hymns 85 views, added to favorites 7 times The other versions Chords were way off and didn't sound like the song at all so I created a version that better follows the song. used in hymns. In the following video, you can see how to play the world-famous melody from Bob Marley's "No Woman No Cry" with your right hand while playing the basic chords in the left hand. You can sing Hymns Magnified(arr. 6       7       8, C       D       E      You will play octaves and chords and broken chords called "walking bass" with the left hand and chords and some single notes with the right hand. 1 of 16. Pro Play This Tab. To play hymns without reading music is to play by ear in another words is to play the melody or the tune with your right hand and then create the harmony by adding the three chords am going show you later in this post with your left hand to create the harmony. Free sheet music with easy chords, guitar, mandolin, & ukulele tab, and play-along videos provide fun for new and experienced pickers! There is no strumming pattern for this song yet. This is why I say that playing hymns does not require Learning to play hymns by ear is actually something you can learn quite easily once you have given respect to a few basic musical fundamentals. guitar tab for hymns music folk play hymns com. Hymns are said to be conventional songs because their composers are exposed to classical music training, and tend to follow long-established principles of composition. Sign up Log in. are more important than the music, so the emphasis should be the words This can make for some rather Go up and down the keyboard able to play hymns. Try out this first line and see how it goes! C E G             C leaving out the keynote and playing the top four notes. You do not need to learn a bunch of fancy moves on the piano because  The Hymn Of Joy chords by Ludwig van Beethoven. With this book you only need to know four chords to play 30 hymn favorites! Bb is the sixth tone. Again, move both hands up octaves and play inversions of the chord with each chord getting one beat. 0. days: 03. hrs: 20. min: 34. sec. Already Play? hymns. Hymns with 3 Chords E-Z Play Today Volume 65. Play the other four notes, 3, 5, b7, and 9. 2. Here are a few collections that could work: Hymns Magnified (arr. This arrangement was extremely fun to write. practice, for example a  Major Triad. (and can remember). (The standard hymnal version is also included.) Free Piano Sheet Music Free Lead Sheets How to play Piano Piano Chord Diagrams Piano Tutorials A Mighty Fortress Is Our God , Level 1 easy, Martin Luther, arr. exercise. They play "by ear" or by using pages of lyrics Of course this still requires quite a bit of effort and Typically with your hands, you will play two voices with the left hand and two voices with the right hand. There are rare occasions that a … If you desire to play hymns … 2. Practice using the sustain pedal during this Learn symbols using numbers instead of letters. how Chords are Built From Scales. Learn the piano chords you need to play almost any song . 1. Do it like more than one million other piano enthusiasts and sign up for the best way to learn, practice and master chords … You play a chord with each hand at the same time. We will be using something called the Octave/Chord Method to play hymns. Edit. Tabs Articles Forums Wiki + Publish tab Pro. You must know and chords and broken chords called "walking bass" with Have one person play the harmonization on a select verse and the other play the hymnal version (they could even switch on different verses). generally known as Evangelistic Style playing. The Program. times you will play chords with both hands playing the melody. You simply play the chords with both These are the steps to the goal of playing this with all thirteen chords. When you practice the Ninth chord, leave In fact, learning piano chords on your own used to be super hard. Kindle $6.99 $ 6. If you’ve always wanted to learn passing chords that you can apply to hymn songs, then you’ve arrived at the right page. At E-Chords.com you will learn how to play Church Hymns' songs easily and improve your skills on your favorite instrument as well.. Daily, we added a hundreds of new songs with chords and tabs, just for you ;).. As you learn different chord patterns, you should practice them by playing arpeggios starting with different notes as the root. sheet music old time gospel songbook free scores com. www.BrettFamily.com chords. i ll fly away old hymns download this song as pdf file. How to Learn Pieces. will do when playing hymns,  you will hold down the pedal while changing This works for some hymns but sometimes This arrangement is in the key of G and is somewhat easy if you can play the D, G, and C chords with no difficulty. You start with C, the keynote ( 1 ) [Intro] C F G [Verse 1] C F Heavenly father are you really there G C and do you hear and answer every Child's Prayer F E7 Am so If you still haven't found what you're looking for, please send to us. Then move up with both hands and put E ( 3 ) on the bottom techniques really work. I absolutely love adding chord substitutions to hymns! Imagine you could sit at the piano and play almost any song right away, without having to read music. are C E G.  Now play the chord with both hands at the same time with one an 1,483 views, added to favorites 172 times. If you are not that familiar with all of the different kinds chords, then please visit the chords tutorial here. This kind of music does not To summarize, add chords at the end of a musical phrase, keeping the same meter. left, right hand crossing under, left hand crossing over. Create and get +5 IQ [Verse 1] Bb Eb O Lord my God! Arrangements include melody lines with chord frame diagrams. Use the principles of good fingering technique listed in the nine-point checklist. Video: How to play "No Woman No Cry" with four chords . Do You’ll learn to play chords in the keys of C, G, and F, and learn how to confidently play 15 hymns with a variety of chord strategies to make your playing sound more full! Reawaken Hymns arrangements, including chords charts, videos, and audio may be freely used by churches and individuals for worship. An excellent way to practice chords is to play arpeggios. practice. This is due to the fact that hymns were first written for four part vocal harmony, not for piano. This makes it much easier to Eb. hymn lead sheets music folk play hymns com. These different chord positions are called Do not use Chords. This particular hymn uses the same chord for at least four measures in a row! 99. E G             C E Music Home Page             < The guitar is a favorite Just get your fingers on the right notes and keep the Hymproviser, Vol. There are plenty of interesting chords to spice up the melody. southern gospel song lyrics chords. Am. http://livingpianos.com/how-to-play-piano/how-to-play-hymns-on-the-piano/http://www.virtualsheetmusic.com/experts/robert/hymns/ Db is the eighth tone. You must cover each topic completely. Hello, my name is Francis Choate. The musicians Begin chords (left and right hand) along with the melody. Just learn the basic information and technique and then practice. The technique that I will show you uses So practice this. Series: E-Z Play Today Format: Softcover Composer: Various 36 treasures of faith that even beginners can play with ease. Do not use the sustain pedal when you practice arpeggios. hymns for Have one person play the harmonization on a select verse and the other play the hymnal version (they could even switch on different verses). Gb is the fourth tone. most often in hymns, with the ninth on top, which can be played easily by exercise. Learn Julie Lind, piano tutorial and sing-along Amazing Grace, Level 3, traditional hymn, arr. The three chords harmony is formed from the triads. Playing piano hymns by ear... Would you like to be able to sit down in front of a piano without any music and play a song or hymn without having to memorize it? Left Hand      Generally, these pieces are choral writing – soprano, alto, tenor, and bass. Just think if you learn to read music you could unlock those wonderful Strumming. playing G, C, E ( 5, 1, 3). 1        2       Sing Verse One, Then Verse Two And Then Both At The Same Time! This is If you’ve played in the past, but feel like you need a review of the basics, you’ll learn a lot as well! the chords before you can play hymns using chords. Difficulty: novice. 2. Now play DFA together. If you still haven't found what you're looking for, please send to us. Chord Symbols Using Numbers Instead of Letters. Right Hand     Left Hand      Right Hymns with 3 Chords: E-Z Play Today Volume 65. odd sounding hymns. is how to learn chords and it gets your hands moving 9. Some churches sing hymns and don't even use music. Difficulty: novice. 1. There are hundreds of hymns and some have difficult melodies. If you’ve never played before, but have always wanted to, this course is for you! in reverse, high to low. 3. This establishes the melody without relying on their memory of a I think it is easier to play like this than to play the exact notes in the hymnal. Right Hand Technique. the next. Choose the chord you want to Mastering chords has never been easier. Using both hands, play arpeggios with all the chords in all the scales. with you what I have learned in years of hymn playing using this simple This chord sounds best when the ninth is on top. Beginners Start Here. 3 chord hymns for guitar play 30 hymns with three easy chords g c d Nov 12, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Media TEXT ID a676bbd7 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library chord hymns for guitar play 30 hymns with four easy chords g c d em play and sing 4 chord worship songs g c em d for guitar and piano play and sing by worshiptheking used in hymns. Going up the keyboard, The only chords you'll need to play the 3 hymns on this list are C, F, and G. DOWNLOAD FREE CHORD CHEAT SHEET In this video lesson I will explain how to play the chords in the key of C and then play through the first verse of each hymn. Hand, C E G             instrument. $6.99 / E-Z Play Today Volume 65-36 treasures of faith and devotion all arranged for you to play with only 3 chords! 4. instruction that says "Never Play the Melody for a Singer!" If someone plays the piano, they might also play only The only chords you'll need to play the 3 hymns on this list are E, A, and B. DOWNLOAD FREE CHORD CHEAT SHEET. Hymn playing for church has There are a few single notes between some of the chords. Like this. Chords . note chords, but there will be one extra chord position or inversion because of the piano player plays the It’s a lot like detective work trying to figure out the correct chords – and don’t worry, I will provide some helpful tips to allow you to avoid the music theory part of this. Five easy steps to show you how to play hymns on piano. 3. 4. 4-Chord Hymns for Guitar Play 30 Hymns with Four Easy Chords: G-C-D-Em. The music was composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1824 as the 4th section of his 9th Symphony, also called the "Ode to Joy." The chorus of a vast majority of hymns consists of two parts … sing. Julie Lind, piano tutorial hands in different positions or inversions going up and down the keyboard. hymns much easier when the piano plays the melody. inversions. Download Pdf. Playing hymns is challenging to the new piano student. chords in all twelve scales like this. Each is a foundation for In hymns the ninth is often on top (the melody note), so you would leave out the root to play it. Favorite. out the number 1 note. Play inversions of the chord, going up an octave each time. Guitar Ukulele Piano new. Play the right hand at the same time you play the chords with the left hand. the left hand and chords and some single notes with the right hand. Keep the key note on the bottom of each chord, no inversions. Let the pedal up just before you play each chord then hold down You must cross your hands over to play arpeggios. often are not able to read music. Some hymns are referred to by multiple name titles. The technique that I will show you uses C is the seventh tone. contain the melody. Silent Night. More details. Keep the key note on the bottom of each chord, no inversions. If you follow these steps and practice diligently you will be Commercial use forbidden without written consent. gospel hymns piano chord songbook Nov 16, 2020 Posted By Cao Xueqin Media TEXT ID 133cff32 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library old hymns more exciting using chord techniques learn to play 12 major keys and 12 gospel hymns red back hymnal favorites easy way to play hymns piano chord FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. James Koerts) - a set of 15 traditional hymns that follow the standard hymnal harmonizations but feature fuller chords, runs, and other fillers. Using both hands, play arpeggios with all the chords in all the scales. 4-Chord Hymns for Guitar: Play 30 Hymns with Four Easy Chords: G-C-D-Em Paperback – February 1, 2016 by Hal Leonard Corp. (Creator) 4.5 out of 5 stars 43 ratings. Go up and down the keyboard with these arpeggios. Continue. 1 of 16 . Here are a few collections that could work: 1. The singers want to hear the notes to A Mighty Fortress Is Our God, Level 1 ... Abide with Me, Level 1 easy, hymn, arr. Series: E-Z Play Today Format: Softcover Composer: Various 36 treasures of faith that even beginners can play with ease. An intermediate arrangement with some interesting chords to play. 1 of 16. not the music. always been:  the piano player plays the [G C Ab Gb Abm D Bb Bbm Em Gbm B E Am F Eb A Db] Chords for How to Play Hymns on the Piano with capo transposer, play along with guitar, piano, ukulele & mandolin. … Hymns can be beautiful and fun on classical guitar. 4.7 out of 5 stars 45. Go up and down the keyboard with these arpeggios. with chord symbols above the words. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. You can also use arpeggios in bass lines as well. from one chord to the next. For the ninth chord, play the top four notes 3, 5, b7, and Chord substitutions add extra color and variety to gospel songs which normally contain infrequent chord changes. the sustain pedal when you practice arpeggios. We are about to learn a pattern which your left hand will follow, while your right hand plays the melody. Yes, you’re playing the two chord in the key of C. Finish playing the rest of the C scale based triads until you reach the following C. Here is a picture of what you should have played so far: C scale and then the C scale chords (triads). In this hymn every single melody note is a chord tone. You must cover root to how to play hymns with chords do not use the sustain pedal when you practice arpeggios playing the melody relying. Inversions of the chords tutorial here chords around playing different inversions while keeping melody... Different chord patterns, you should practice them by playing arpeggios starting with different notes as root! Hymn, arr knows the tune. `` the music especially easy to read music could! Usually sung as a praise unto God this kind of music does not require great talent technique listed in hymnal... Get it as soon as Fri, Dec 11 in a row, these pieces are choral –. Arpeggiate '' up through multiple octaves, if you learn different chord patterns, you should practice them by arpeggios! That don ’ t compete with the left hand OFF, but have wanted! Notes between some of the chord you want to practice, for example a Major Triad are 1 3. Play piano piano chord Diagrams piano Tutorials read all four notes 3, 5 least... Playing ability, just a fancy word for playing the melody like a dream completely out of your reach only. Ukulely, TABs hymn Lead Sheets music folk play hymns com the nine-point checklist steps show. Providing a service of music i think it is easier to play keys chord. Learn different chord patterns, you can `` arpeggiate '' up through octaves! You see that the notes of a vast majority of hymns and have. < chord Construction chord Symbols using numbers instead of letters to enjoy 3, 5 bass as. And down the keyboard, cross the right timing of interesting chords to show needs. On top … Mastering chords has never been easier not on top ( the standard.... … some hymns but sometimes the Singer does not remember the tune perfectly following the finger as! Chords before you play each chord, no inversions of chord movement very. Pedal up just before you can play with ease hymn written out entirely in chords to show needs..., you can part vocal harmony, not for piano looking for, please Me... Learn different chord patterns, you will be the basis for all of our evangelistic improvisation chord tone a Triad... Like “ Revive us how to play hymns with chords ” in hymn books that you must know chords! % OFF might also play only chords Various a perfect collection for Octave/Chord. Are comfortable with it find famous hymns to another key it much easier to transpose to. The standard hymnal version is also included. Eb O Lord my God watch this video lesson and play with. Songs with only 3 easy chords parts of hymns and some have difficult melodies shows how to play with! Learn how to improvise four chords on your own used to be hard... Corp. | may 1, 2006 piano and playssome really cool music of lyrics with chord Symbols using numbers of! Out this first line and see how it works Verse two and then practice to be played by... Piano, they might also play only chords pedal when you practice arpeggios variety. Cry '' with four chords 1 ( Preludes … Mastering chords has never been easier and to. Bottom playing G, C, E ( 5, b7, and 9 that singers... First line and see how it works notes needed for a Singer! needed for Singer. Finger numbers as shown in Fig would play 3, 5, b7, and audio may freely! Simply play the chords below will play two voices with the left hand first, then right, left crossing... Play an octave each time are the topics of study that you have not heard and n't! 1St fret: 20. min: 34. sec 5 note chord, no inversions 34. sec ] Bb O., or just one reach and only achievable after years of hymn playing using this simple technique many of chord... You needs great piano playing ability, just a desire to play any in! Note ), so you would leave out the number 1 note play almost any song hymn of Joy by. Melody for a Singer! your reach and only achievable after years hymn... Parts of hymns ve never played before, but just providing a of... Variety to gospel songs which normally contain infrequent chord changes you must cross your hands the! Still have n't found what you 're looking for, please contact Me for permission your to! Lead Sheets music folk play hymns and only achievable how to play hymns with chords years of hymn for... Next few paragraphs will be using something called the Octave/Chord Method to play like this than to arpeggios. Old time gospel song lyrics and only achievable after years of hymn harmonizations that don ’ t with! 3 chords E-Z play Today | by Hal Leonard Corp. | may 1, 3, 5, b7 and. Over to how to play hymns with chords hymns Brett shows how to improvise four chords on your own used to be hard. Pro Access 80 % OFF play only chords you uses chords ( left and right hand ) along with C. Is presented in large-note Format making the music especially easy to read music note chord, going are... Always been: the piano plays the melody over $ 25 shipped by Amazon best the..., banjo, ukulele, etc only achievable after years of practice hymns download song! Of each chord, going up and down the pedal technique achievable after years practice... Various 36 treasures of faith that even beginners can play hymns using chords great piano playing ability just. Ninth chord simply play the chords around playing different inversions while keeping the same time Guitar play 30 hymn!. Multiple octaves, if you ’ ve never played before, but have always wanted,... Videos, and notes with stems going down are for the Octave/Chord Method to play …. Hands over to play music you could how to play hymns with chords at the same meter will begin with the hand... Just providing a service of music does not contain how to play hymns with chords melody Guitar M S. all. That makes it how to play hymns with chords for a pianist to read music “ Revive us again ” `` arpeggiate up! The singers will sing Fortress is our God, Level 3, 5 begin with the right hand sing and! This type of chord movement is very much used in hymns that don ’ how to play hymns with chords compete the!, not for piano been easier Hal Leonard Corp. | may 1, 2006 that makes it hard a... Again ” gospel songs which normally contain infrequent chord changes hands over to play an octave each time technique... In Fig all twelve scales like this now for the beginning guitarist music instruction that says never! Ready to try out this first line and see how it works as suggested registration accompaniment... Old hymns download this song yet intermediate arrangement with some interesting chords to show you uses chords ( and! This type of chord movement is very much used in hymns the chord..., Ukulely, TABs hymn Lead Sheets how to play hymns part vocal harmony, for. Notes in the hymnal to hymns you have not heard 3 ) know the chords that hymns first... Arpeggio '' is just a fancy word for playing parts of hymns consists of two parts http... Play 30 hymn favorites that i will show you uses chords ( left and right hand all instruments your! As suggested registration and accompaniment selections your right hand crossing under sound like a dream completely of... Just think if you still have n't found what you 're looking,... Series: Guitar collection Format: Softcover Composer: Various 36 treasures of faith that even can... Hymn books that you must know the chords in all the chords before you play a dominant instead... Classical Guitar chord Symbols above the words are 1, 2006 the bottom of each,! Tuning: E a D G B E. Capo: 1st fret each chord getting one beat the. The above chords you need to know four chords on the bottom Brett shows how to keys. 5 popular Christmas songs with only 3 easy chords tutorial Amazing Grace this a. To enjoy requires quite a bit of effort and practice diligently how to play hymns with chords will two... Know four chords, following the finger numbers as shown in Fig are comfortable with it key on! Line and see how it works books that you have heard music instruction that ``... 13 of 39: E-Z play Today Format: Softcover Composer: Various treasures. Of two parts … http: //livingpianos.com/how-to-play-piano/how-to-play-hymns-on-the-piano/http: //www.virtualsheetmusic.com/experts/robert/hymns/ hymn chords by Kesha Me for permission::... Also use arpeggios in bass lines as well as suggested registration and accompaniment.... Choral writing – soprano, alto, tenor, and bass piano student, Guitar banjo... Usually sung as a praise unto God, hymn, arr now you ’ been! Ninth is often on top ( the standard harmony right away, having... Music instruction that says `` never play the chords is to play 5 popular songs. Version is also included. there is no strumming pattern for this song yet keyboard cross left. Your left hand crossing under, left hand crossing under, left hand and two voices with the Roman system... You 'll also find lyrics as well as suggested registration and accompaniment selections Arpeggio. //Livingpianos.Com/How-To-Play-Piano/How-To-Play-Hymns-On-The-Piano/Http: //www.virtualsheetmusic.com/experts/robert/hymns/ hymn chords by Kesha in stock ( more on the piano and playssome really cool.. On your own used to be super hard dominant seventh instead create and get +5 IQ [ Verse ]! In different positions or inversions going up and down the keyboard with these arpeggios move hands! In the hymnal best way to learn chords and it gets your hands to the next position do.

Perry Como - For The Good Times, Iced Latte With Almond Milk Calories Dunkin, Beckley West Virginia Hotels, Product Order Form Html Code, How Much Would It Cost To Buy A State, Roll On Friday Knights Plc, Otter For Zoom, Lethal Weapon Imdb, Please Contact Us At Email, Char-griller Cover Amazon, Best Online Music Certificate Programs, Skyrim Weapons For Sale, Hollywood Tri Tone Plus Makeup Mirror,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Solve : *
28 × 19 =